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The legend of Finn McCool

Finn McCool (Fionn MacCumhaill) was a 3rd Century AD warrior chieftain in medieval Ireland. He led a clan of warriors called the Fianna, and his adventures are documented in the Fenian Cycle. His legend extends beyond these historical documents into the myth of the Giants Causeway.

There are many stories in Irish Mythology of adventures, voyages, battles and Gods which are commonly categorized by historians into four main cycles. One of which is the Finn Cycle, also known as the Fenian Cycle.

These stories are based around the mythical Irish hero Fionn MacCool and his warriors of the Fianna, who were forest-dwelling mercenaries known as the soldiers of destiny. These Finnian Tales were said to have been written as poems by Finn McCool’s son, Oisín, and retold by the Irish people for generations.

The Boyhood Deeds of Fionn

The Macgnímartha Finn is a medieval Irish Mythology narrative of the Fenian Cycle It pieces together manuscripts Laud 610: and folio 118Rb-121Va (which is missing the ending). It was attributed to the 12th Century by Kuno Meyer. It covers the background and early life of Fionn mac Cumhaill, the Salmon of Knowledge, the recovery of his father’s treasure and killing Aillén to win the leadership of the Fianna. 

The early life of Deimne

The Boyhood Deeds of Fionn documents Finn McCool’s childhood. Fionn’s mother was Muireann Muncháem (Muirne). His maternal grandfather was Tadg mac Nuadat, a druid who lived on the hill of Almu. He had foreseen her marriage would result in losing his home, so spurned any potential suitor. This forced Cumhal, the leader of the feared Fianna warriors who had fallen in love, to abduct her. Outraged at this, Tadg appealed for help to the High King of Ireland, Conn of the Hundred Battles. Conn agreed and forbade the relationship, sending his troops after the newly outlawed Cumhal.

The armies of Conn and Cumhall met at the Battle of Cnucha, and Cath Cnucha Cumhal was slain by Goll Mac Morna (who then became the leader of the Fianna). Muraine was returned to her father by King Conn and was discovered to be pregnant. Outraged and shamed, her father rejected her and ordered his followers to burn her. Conn interjected and instead sent her to the Druidess Bodhmall, who was Cumhal’s sister, and into the protection of her husband Fiacal mac Conchinn.

Muireann gave birth to a son called Deimne. It was evident the boy’s father Cumhal still had enemies, so with a heavy heart, she left her son with Bodhmall in Ballyfin, a small village in Sliabh Bladhma (Slieve Bloom Mountains), Laois. Muirne later married the king of Kerry.

Fionn was brought up by two foster mothers in secret, Bodhmall and her companion Liath Luachra, who were known as great warriors. They hid the boy in the forest and taught him how to be a great warrior and joined him on several adventures. Word of young Fionn’s adventures was beginning to spread, and his foster parents were worried his father’s enemies would find him so confident they had taught him all they could, sent him into the service of local kings to work, but each time he would be recognised as Cumhal’s son. In fear of being unable to protect him, he was forced to move away yet again. It seems this nomadic lifestyle took him South to West Cork to serve the King of Bantry.

Finn the Fair

The village of Ballyfin is known as the “town of Fionn” and “the fair/white town”, and versions of the story say his name changed to either protect him or is a nickname from when his hair went white. That legend says he found a beautiful young lady sobbing on the edge of Calliagh Berra Lake on the slopes near the summit of Slieve Gullion. She told him she had dropped her golden ring into the deep lake. Deimne dived in and retrieved it and returned to find he was tricked by the old hag Calliagh Berra. As he returned to shore, he had become an old man, and on his return to the village, only his trusted hounds recognised him. The Fianna forced the witch to return his youth, but it is said his hair remained white for the rest of his life. As he did not lead the Fianna until adulthood (after the defeating Aillen), this would mean this name change would have been after leaving Laois.

The Salmon of Knowledge

The most famous story of young Fionn was met he met the Druid and Poet Finnegas (Finn Eces) near the River Boyne, which is North-East of Ballyfin. It is said young Deimne studied under him so would have likely been after leaving the Slieve Bloom mountains and before heading South to Cork.

The druid Finnegas had spent seven years trying to catch the Salmon of Knowledge which inhabited a pool in the River Boyne. It was foretold that whoever ate the salmon would gain all the knowledge in the world, gained through the fishes diet of holy tree hazelnuts. With Finn’s help, the fish was finally caught, and the boy was tasked with cooking it.

While doing so, Deimne burnt this thumb on the fish and put it in his mouth to soothe the pain. Instantly Finn was given the salmon’s wisdom, and when Finnegas saw this, he gave young Fionn the rest of the salmon to eat. This knowledge guided Fionn on how to gain revenge against Goll for killing his father. In later stories, it was said he could call on the salmon’s knowledge by sucking his thumb.

Bigfish sculpture in Belfast

Liath Luachra and the treasure of Cumhal

Not to be confused with Deimne’s Foster Mother of the same name, Liath Luachra of Connaught was a member of the Fianna and from Clan Morna. He was the Fianna’s official treasurer and struck the first blow on Cumhall when he died. Perhaps he knew the value of Cumhal’s corrbolg crane-skin bag magical weapons, but after the battle, he had possession of the treasure. Which must have been magic as the tiny bag could not have held all the weapons otherwise. The tales say Finn Mcool found a mother crying over a slain young warrior called Glonda, and seeks to avenge him. After easily killing Liath he obtains his father’s bag and is able to return the treasure to the Fianna.

Aillen and leadership of the Fianna

In Irish Mythology Aillen (or Áillen) was an incendiary being, who played the harp and sung beautiful songs. Also called the burner, the member of the Tuatha Dé Danann resided in Mag Mell, the underworld. They were thought to be personifications of darkness, chaos, death, drought and blight.

Each year the Gaelic festival Samhain marked the end of the Harvest Season and was celebrated 31st October to 1st November. Much like the modern Halloween, it was essentially a day for the Dead. It was said that the sídhe fairy mounds were always open at Samhain, and these portals to the Otherworld allowed the souls of the dead and the supernatural beings to enter the mortal world.

This allowed Aillen the opportunity to cross over every year, which he had done for 23 years. Some stories call him a Goblin, rather than a supernatural being from the underworld.

Each year the High King of Ireland hosted a celebration gathering at the capital Tara (County Meath) for the Lords, Nobles and local Kings. And each year the mobile fire-breather Aillen lulled everyone to sleep with his music and burned down the palace of Tara. Makes you wonder why they had the party there in the first place. But one Samhain, young Fionn Mac Cumhail was there. This could have been while serving the King of Bantry, but a version says he was wandering on his travels and saw the party and joined the craic. Either way, he heard the stories of Aillén mac Midgna, and how he put everyone to sleep with his music. Even the fearless Fianna who were guarding the place under the leadership of Goll. But young Fionn had a trick up his sleeve, well a spear anyway. Legend says he put the spear into flames and pressed the hot blade against his head to stay awake, and drove the weapon into the Tuatha Dé Danann. As a reward for this feat, King Cormac granted anything he desired, and Fionn announced his heritage and requested his father’s leadership of the Fianna which was granted. Another version says this was one of three strenuous tests set by King Cormac for Finn to became the leader of Clan Bascna. Regardless, with his army rightfully behind him, the young warrior addressed his Grandfather Tadg mac Nuadat and demanded compensation for his father’s death. He was given Dun Almhain, the Hill of Allen.

Finn McCool and the Fianna

As leader of the feared Fianna, Fionn mac Cumhail had many more adventures documented in other stories in the Fenian Cycle.

Fionn and Sadhbh

While out hunting Finn was about to slay a deer when he was stopped by his hounds Bran and Sceólang, who were born of a human enchanted into the form of a hound. The faithful animals recognised her as human and Fionn took her home, where she turned into Sadhbh the moment she set foot on his land. The druid Fear Doirich had turned her into a deer for refusing to marry him. They married, and she was soon pregnant, but while Finn was out hunting the druid returned and turned her back into a deer. Fionn spent years searching for her, and his faithful hounds found their son, Oisín, in the form of a fawn. Once returned, he transformed back into a child and became one of the greatest of the Fianna and a poet.

The Pursuit of Diarmuid and Gráinne

The ageing Finn was promised the hand of his daughter Gráinne by High King Cormac mac Airt, but at the wedding feast, she falls for the handsome young lieutenant of the Fianna, Diarmuid Ua Duibhne. She forces him to run away with her, perhaps to avoid the married life. Fionn and the Fianna chase them all over Ireland until finally making his peace with the couple. Years later, Diarmuid is gored on a boar hunt, and Fionn has the ability to heal with water drunk through his hands. But each time Finn gathers the water, he lets it slip between his fingers and allows the young man to die. In an alternate version, the marriage is a disaster, and a sad Finn overhears Gráinne tell her father how unhappy she is, so he annuls the marriage and is offered the hand of another daughter Ailbe instead.

The Death of Finn McCool

Of course, the legends say Fionn is not dead, merely sleeping with the Fianna in a cave until the hunting horn of the Fianna, the Dord Fiann, is sounded three times. Then he will return and defend Ireland in the hour of her greatest need. But there are several accounts of his death in the annals of history. The 10th-Century poet Cinead húa Hartacáin maintains that Finn was beheaded by Aiclech mac Dubdrenn in the battle against the Lúagni Temrach, in County Meath. 

The annals of the four masters state Finn was killed the year AD 283, at Rath-Breagh near the River Boyne. Derived from two manuscript fragments it says that Finn lived to old age, but died jumping across the River Boyne when he banged his head off a rock and/or drowned. He is then found by Aiclech who cuts off his head. So same location, the same end result.

The Death of Fionn says he died the year after in AD 284 at the Battle of Gabhra. Due to a dispute over taxes, High King Cairbre Lifechair, the son of Cormac mac Art raised a huge army from across Leinster, Connacht and Ulster. He recruited Goll mac Morna to join them to attack Clan Bascna, supported by Munster. This is despite Caibre of the Liffey being married to Fionn’s daughter Aine according to one narrative. We can only assume if this was true, that this was a daughter with one of the marriages to the daughters of Cormac mac Airt. Meaning Cairbre married his Neice. Although there is not much mention I can find of a daughter elsewhere. Fionn’s grandson Oscar is the Fianna’s greatest warrior and slays Caibre in single combat, but dies of his wounds shortly after. At the sight of this Finn blows the fabled Dord Fiann, Boradu, to galvanise the Fianna and slays dozens of men before being beheaded while grieving the loss of his grandson and the future of the Fianna. The only survivors of the Fianna were Caílte mac Rónáin and Fionn’s son Oisín. This would be the same Cailte who is said to avenged Fionn’s death in the version above, by slaying Aiclech. With both stories though Finn’s grandson was old enough to be a great warrior, so we can assume he lived to a decent age. Cailte and Oisin were said to have told the story to Saint Patrick a few centuries later, so must have been something in the Boyne water.

Sheemore – the final resting place of Finn McCool?

To the East of Leitrim sits Sheebeg (Sí Bheag) and Sheemore (Sí Mhór), -hills steeped in mythology with Cairns on the summit and tombs on the accent. Both hills are said to be sidhe fairy mounds and released fairies and spirits on Samhain (Halloween).

It is said this is the resting place of Grainne, lover of Diarmuid, and daughter of High King Cormac mac Airt. Who in some versions of the story married Fionn after the death of her lover, later throwing herself of his chariot to her death.

Local legend say this is the resting place of Finn McCool as the battle of Gabhra was fought between the hills. Although experts think this was between Tara and Skryne in County Meath.

Regardless the Cairns suggest someone noble was buried here. It’s a stunning site, and from the 479 feet tip of Sheebeg, you can see five counties and fourteen lakes so there are worse spots to spend eternity.

The site was excavated in 1931 and the Irish times at the time reported that at at Sheebeg near Carrick on Shannon in a mound known as that of Finn McCool, two human skeletons were found side by side and facing directly towards the Hill of Tara. Definitely male and female, the woman’s teeth were in perfect condition.

Finn MacCool – Real or Myth?

So was Maccool a real legendary irish warrior or just myth? We can only go from secondary evidence and from documents from the time. There is little documented in pre-Christian Ireland, but here I look to archaeology and the timeline of Irish History. The first evidence of man in Ireland dates back to around 9700BC in Prehistoric Ireland, with protohistoric Gaelic Ireland in the 2nd and 3rd Century BC. Christianity arrived in 4th Century AD with Saint Patrick, with writing introduced by the end of the 6th Century AD. Viking raids and settlements started in the 8th Century, with the famed Brian Bórú and the Battle of Clontarf in 1014 (10th Century AD).

The Fenian Cycles are said to document/take place in 3rd Century AD in the time when Cormac Mac Airt was High King of Ireland as documented by the annals of the Four Masters which chronicles start in 2,242 AD. No doubt this can be picked apart by Historians as it was written in the 1600’s based on other annals. For time point reference only, the Book of Kells was from the 9th Century and of course an illuminated manuscript of the Gospel, so not about Irish History at all. 

In most documentation in Irish Mythology, Finn MacCool is not a giant but a hero. As far as I can see, the Giant’s Causeway is the only story portraying him as such (although you cannot rule out the possiblity that Irish Mythology stories of Finn McCool and the Fianna were mixed with Cúchulainn and the champions of the Red Branch). It was noted in 1888 that Irish Pagan Gods grew smaller in the popular imagination to become fairies. Pagan heroes in reverse grew bigger into Giants. So let us be fair, he’s likely as real as King Arthur, Robin Hood or Ragnar Lothbrok; exaggerated stories based on a real person. The Arthurian legends are a good comparison as also had supernatural elements (incidently you could question if Arthur and his Knights were heaviy influcenced by Finn and the Fianna).

There are contradictions in the poems, which of course would naturally vary as they were retold much like Chinese Whispers. If the poems were indeed written by his son Oisín (himself immortalised in the story of Tír na nÓg), you would assume it was done so in the best light possible. Science tells us that Giants did not exist, but I believe Fionn mac Cumhaill did as a revered warrior only. And put it this way, the Irish Mythology Cycles were thought to be historical facts until recent times.

The Ulster Cycle even has Conchobar mac Nessa’s life synchronised with the birth and death of Christ and Cu Chulainn had an immacualte conception when God impregnated his mother. So just because historians can look at an old document like the annals of the four masters, who are they to really question the early names on there? Simply because of the Christian’s arrival and love of documenting, with their dependable historical accounts like the Bible where people walked on water and could part the sea. For all we know they could have taken the story and made it their own. Either way, we still love him here. And we are not alone, from Boston to Devon, there are many a pub, bar, hostel, restaurant or fish and chip shop named after Finn McCool.

Places named after Fionn MacCumhaill

The Giant’s Causeway

The UNESCO World Heritage Site located in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. The Causeway has about 40,000 interlocking basalt columns created by an ancient volcanic fissure eruption. Local myth says it was created by Finn McCool.

Finn McCools Fingers

Shantemon Stone Row is a set of five standing stones on the Shantemon mountain in County Cavan, arranged in a south-east/north-west orientation. The nickname comes from the story that Fionn mac Cumhaill lost a hand in battle.

Fingals Cave

A cave on the unhibitated isle of Staffa, in the Inner Hebrides of Soctland. The sea cave is formed from hexagonally jointed basalt columns, similiar to the Giants Causeway.

Summarized Frequently Asked Questions

Who is Finn MacCool?
Fionn mac Cumhaill was a distinguished chief in 3rd century medieval Ireland. He married the daughters (Graine and Ailbe) of the High King of Ireland Cormac mac Art. Finn MacCool adventures as a hero with the Fianna is documented in the Fenian Cycle of various prose on Irish Mythology.  
What does the name Finn mean?
The name Finn in Irish is a variant of Fionn and means Fair, Bright, White and Blond. It also means fair as in true, and blonde warrior. Other variants include Finnley and Finley. The Scottish form is Fingal, variants being Finnlay or Finlay. Other versions can be Finian and Finnian, Finnegan and Finnigan. There is also an Old Norse Origin Finnr meaning Finder.
The boy’s name has increased in popularity as a masculine given name since the 1990’s, although there is no instantly obvious reason for this.
Where did Finn McCool live?
Fionn lived all over Ireland and was said to have been brought up in the Slieve Bloom mountains (County Laois) near the town of Ballyfin. As an adult, he lived in Dun Almhain, the Fort-of-Allen on the Hill of Almu in County Kildare, given to him by his maternal grandfather the druid Tadg mac Nuadat in compensation for his father’s death.    
What names is Fionn MacCumhaill also known?
Fionn mac Cumhaill is the old Irish name and is commonly translated as Finn McCool, and sometimes as MacCool or MacCoul. It has many variants over the years spelt in Ancient Irish Gaelic. Here is a full list of variants: Finn Mac Cumhail, Finn mac Cool, Finn mac Coul, Fionn mac Cool, Fionn mac Coul, Fionn mac Cumhail, Fingal (hero), Finn MacCumhail, Finn Mac Cool, Fion Mac Cumhail, Fionn Mac Cumhail, Finn McCool, Fionn Mac Cumhaill, Fin McCoul, Finn M’Coul, Finn MacCoul, Finn McCoul, Finn macCool, Finn Maccool, Finn McCooil, Finn mac Cumaill, Finn mac Cumhal, Finn MacCool, Finn mac Cumhail, Feunn mac Cüail, Finn-maccool, Deimne, Fionn MacCool, Fionn MacCumhaill, Feunn mac Cuail, Feunn mac Cueail, Fionn mac cumhaill, Finn (Irish hero), Find mac Cumaill, Find mac Cumail, Find mac Umaill, Finn Mac Cumhal, Finn mac Cumail, Finn mac Cumhaill, Finn mac Umaill, Mac Cumhaill, Mac Umaill, Fionn MacCumhail.
Who were the Fianna?

The Fianna were a nomadic and forest-dwelling band of warriors in Irish mythology led by Fionn mac Cumhaill (Finn MacCool) and documented in the Fenian Cycle. It was said the High King of Ireland, Cormac mac Airt, united fearless warrior clans to protect the Kingdom. The two notable were Clan Bascna lead by Cumhal (who led the Fianna) and Clan Morna led by Goll mac Morna.

Clan Morna killed Cumhal after the Battle of Knock, with Liath Luachra stealing Clan Bascna’s treasure bag. Cumhal’s unborn son Fionn later retrieves this and is awarded leadership of the Fianna after saving Fort Tara from the Aillen the Burner.

The Death of Fionn tells of the Battle of Gabhra which marks the demise of the Fionn and the Fianna, with the death of Oscar the Finna’s finest warrior and Finn’s Grandson. This battle was noted to have occurred in AD 284.

Notable fénnid in the Fianna include: Caílte mac Rónáin, Cael Ua Neamhnainn, Conán mac Lia, Cumall, Diarmuid Ua Duibne, Fionn mac Cumhaill, Goll mac Morna, Liath Luachra, Lughaid Stronghand, Oisín mac Finn, and Oscar mac Oisin.

Who did Finn McCool fight?

Fionn mac Cunmhail’s most famous foe was the Scottish giant Benandonner. There are various stories but it is said that the Red Man taunted his Irish rival into building the Giant’s Causeway to cross over to fight him. On arrival Finn found him to be much bigger so he turned and ran home with his enemy in pursuit. Some smart think from Finn’s wife Oonagh gave her the idea of hiding her husband by disguising him as a baby. On seeing the “baby” Benandonner surmises its father must be huge, so he fled back to Scotland and destroyed the causeway so he could not be followed.

Finn MacCool also fought many an enemy with the Fianna.

How do you pronounce Fionn mac Cumhaill?
The correct Fionn mac Cumhaill pronunciation is not far from the anglicised version of Finn MacCool, but Fionn said correctly rhythms with John rather than Pin. Mac Cumhaill means son of Cumhall, pronounced “Koo-ull” with the MH more like a W. The L sounds like ball. There is a great recording of the names in the Fenian Cycle pronounced correctly here.
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